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Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I'm looking for a script to search a file or list of files for a pattern and, if found, replace that pattern with a given value. Disclaimer: This approach is a naive illustration of Ruby's capabilities, and not a production-grade solution for replacing strings in files. It's prone to various failure scenarios, such as data loss in case of a crash, interrupt, or disk being full.
This code is not fit for anything beyond a quick one-off script where all the data is backed up. For that reason, do NOT copy this code into your programs. This will apply the code in double-quotes to all files in the current directory whose names end with ". Backup copies of edited files will be created with a ".
NOTE: this does not appear to work for multiline searches. For those, you have to do it the other less pretty way, with a wrapper script around the regex. Keep in mind that, when you do this, the filesystem could be out of space and you may create a zero-length file. Note that in-place file editing like in the accepted answer will always truncate the file and write out the new file sequentially. There will always be a race condition where concurrent readers will see a truncated file. If the process is aborted for any reason ctrl-c, OOM killer, system crash, power outage, etc during the write then the truncated file will also be left over, which can be catastrophic.
This is the kind of dataloss scenario which developers MUST consider because it will happen. For that reason, I think the accepted answer should most likely not be the accepted answer.4 floor elevator fsm
Reads the old file and writes out to the new file. You need to be careful about slurping entire files into memory. Explicitly closes the new temporary file, which is where you may throw an exception because the file buffers cannot be written to disk because there is no space.
Catch this and cleanup the temporary file if you like, but you need to rethrow something or fail fairly hard at this point. With ext3 filesystems you are guaranteed that the metadata write to move the file into place will not get rearranged by the filesystem and written before the data buffers for the new file are written, so this should either succeed or fail.
The ext4 filesystem has also been patched to support this kind of behavior.
If you are very paranoid you should call the fdatasync system call as a step 3. Regardless of language, this is best practice. In languages where calling close does not throw an exception Perl or C you must explicitly check the return of close and throw an exception if it fails. The suggestion above to simply slurp the file into memory, manipulate it and write it out to the file will be guaranteed to produce zero-length files on a full filesystem.
You need to always use FileUtils. A final consideration is the placement of the temporary file. Probably more importantly, when you try to mv the file across a device mount you will transparently get converted to cp behavior. The old file will be opened, the old files inode will be preserved and reopened and the file contents will be copied. This is most likely not what you want, and you may run into "text file busy" errors if you try to edit the contents of a running file. This also defeats the purpose of using the filesystem mv commands and you may run the destination filesystem out of space with only a partially written file.
This also has nothing to do with Ruby's implementation. The system mv and cp commands behave similarly. What is more preferable is to open a Tempfile in the same directory as the old file. This ensures that there will be no cross-device move issues. The mv itself should never fail, and you should always get a complete and untruncated file.The bridge pattern is a design pattern used in software engineering that is meant to "decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently"introduced by the Gang of Four.
When a class varies often, the features of object-oriented programming become very useful because changes to a program 's code can be made easily with minimal prior knowledge about the program. The bridge pattern is useful when both the class and what it does vary often. The class itself can be thought of as the abstraction and what the class can do as the implementation. The bridge pattern can also be thought of as two layers of abstraction.Incremental cost allocation method
The bridge pattern is often confused with the adapter patternand is often implemented using the object adapter patterne. Variant: The implementation can be decoupled even more by deferring the presence of the implementation to the point where the abstraction is utilized. The Bridge  design pattern is one of the twenty-three well-known GoF design patterns that describe how to solve recurring design problems to design flexible and reusable object-oriented software, that is, objects that are easier to implement, change, test, and reuse.
What problems can the Bridge design pattern solve? When using subclassing, different subclasses implement an abstract class in different ways. But an implementation is bound to the abstraction at compile-time and can't be changed at run-time. This enables to configure an Abstraction with an Implementor object at run-time.
See also the Unified Modeling Language class and sequence diagram below. In the above Unified Modeling Language class diagraman abstraction Abstraction isn't implemented as usual in a single inheritance hierarchy. Instead, there is one hierarchy for an abstraction Abstraction and a separate hierarchy for its implementation Implementorwhich makes the two independent from each other. The Abstraction interface operation is implemented in terms of by delegating to the Implementor interface imp.
The UML sequence diagram shows the run-time interactions: The Abstraction1 object delegates implementation to the Implementor1 object by calling operationImp on Implementor1which performs the operation and returns to Abstraction1. Bridge pattern compose objects in tree structure. It decouples abstraction from implementation. Here abstraction represents the client from which the objects will be called. An example implemented in C is given below. The Bridge classes are the Implementation that uses the same interface-oriented architecture to create objects.
On the other hand, the abstraction takes an instance of the implementation class and runs its method. Thus, they are completely decoupled from one another. The following Java program defines a bank account that separates the account operations from the logging of these operations.
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Everything, without exception, is automatically an object, whereas in other programming languages this isn't true. What is an object? Well, in a sense you can think of it in terms of building a car.Pubblicato il x rapporto ispra gli indicatori del clima in italia nel
If you have a blueprint for it, then an object is what's built from that blueprint. It contains all the attributes that the object holds i. But, even as a pure object-oriented language, Ruby doesn't sacrifice any usability or flexibility by leaving out features that aren't expressly related to object-oriented programming.
Ruby's architect Yukihiro Matsumoto known simply as "Matz" on the web designed the language to be simple enough for beginning programmers to use while also powerful enough for experienced programmers to have all the tools they'd need. It sounds contradictory, but this dichotomy is owed to Ruby's pure object-oriented design and Matz's careful selection of features from other languages such as PerlSmalltalk, and Lisp.
There are libraries for building all types of applications with Ruby: XML parsers, GUI bindings, networking protocols, game libraries and more. Ruby programmers also have access to the powerful RubyGems program. Like any programming language, Ruby has its downsides. It's not a high-performance programming language. In that regard, Python's virtual machine design has a huge advantage.
Also, if you're not a fan of the object-oriented methodology then Ruby isn't for you. Though Ruby does have some features that fall outside the realm of object-oriented languages, it's not possible to create a non-trivial Ruby program without using the object-oriented features.
Ruby doesn't always perform as well as other similar scripting languages in raw computing tasks. That being said, future versions will address these problems and alternate implementations, such as JRubyare available as a workaround for these issues. Ruby is used in typical scripting language applications such as text processing and "glue" or middleware programs.
It's suitable for small, ad-hoc scripting tasks that, in the past, may have been solved with Perl. Writing small programs with Ruby is as easy as importing the modules you need and writing an almost BASIC-like "sequence of events" type of program.Hired gun game pua
Like Perl, Ruby also has first-class regular expressions, which makes text processing scripts a snap to write. The flexible syntax also aides in small scripts. With some object-oriented languages, you can get bogged down with verbose and bulky code, but Ruby leaves you free to simply worry about your script. Ruby is also suitable for larger software systems.
Its most successful application is in the Ruby on Rails web frameworksoftware which has five major subsystems, numerous minor pieces and a plethora of support scripts, database backends, and libraries.
To aid the creation of larger systems, Ruby offers several layers of compartmentalization, including the class and module. Its lack of superfluous features allows programmers to write and use large software systems without any surprises. Share Flipboard Email.
Michael Morin. Computer Science Expert.The Bridge design pattern allows you to separate the abstraction from the implementation. It is a structural design pattern. There are 2 parts in Bridge design pattern :. This is a design mechanism that encapsulates an implementation class inside of an interface class.
It becomes handy when you must subclass different times in ways that are orthogonal with one another. But the above solution has a problem. If you want to change the Bus class, then you may end up changing ProduceBus and AssembleBus as well and if the change is workshop specific then you may need to change the Bike class as well.
Mở đầu (Bridge Pattern là gì ?)
You can solve the above problem by decoupling the Vehicle and Workshop interfaces in the below manner. This article is contributed by Saket Kumar. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Design Patterns in Ruby
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. Writing code in comment?
Please use ide. There are 2 parts in Bridge design pattern : Abstraction Implementation This is a design mechanism that encapsulates an implementation class inside of an interface class. The bridge pattern allows the Abstraction and the Implementation to be developed independently and the client code can access only the Abstraction part without being concerned about the Implementation part.
The abstraction is an interface or abstract class and the implementor is also an interface or abstract class. The abstraction contains a reference to the implementor.
Design Patterns - Bridge Pattern
Children of the abstraction are referred to as refined abstractions, and children of the implementor are concrete implementors. Changes to the implementor do not affect client code. Improved By : sunny94Nistelrooy.
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